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Late Bronze/Early Iron Age Fortresses of the Ararat and Shirak Plains, Armenia: Typological Considerations1

Late Bronze/Early Iron Age Fortresses of the Ararat and Shirak Plains, Armenia: Typological... LATE BRONZE/EARLY IRON AGE FORTRESSES OF THE ARARAT AND SHIRAK PLAINS, ARMENIA: TYPOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS1 ADAM T. SMITH (Ann Arbor) Abstract Walled fortresses set atop rock outcrops and hills are the dominant settlement type documented in archaeological investigations of late second/early first millennium B.C. southern Transcaucasia. These sites arose as centers of the emerging complex polities in the region, marking not only the expansion of social inequalities but the formalization of a governmental apparatus. How- ever, there have been few systematic attempts to understand the morphology of Late Bronze/Early Iron Age fortresses and assess dimensions of formal variation. This article proposes a typology of these early southern Transcaucasian fortresses based upon qualitative dimensions of a cor- pus of fortress sites from the Ararat and Shirak plains of the Republic of Armenia. Variation in these qualitative dimensions is then assessed in reference to quantitative elements of settle- ment. In both of his major foundation inscriptions from southern Transcaucasia, Argishti I, King of Urartu, described the region as a "wilderness" to which he gave order through construction: For the majesty of god Khaldi, Argishti, son of Menua, says: I built a majestic fortress, I gave it a name from my own-Argishtihinili. The http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia Brill

Late Bronze/Early Iron Age Fortresses of the Ararat and Shirak Plains, Armenia: Typological Considerations1

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Publisher
Brill
Copyright
Copyright © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands
ISSN
0929-077X
eISSN
1570-0577
DOI
10.1163/157005798X00017
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

LATE BRONZE/EARLY IRON AGE FORTRESSES OF THE ARARAT AND SHIRAK PLAINS, ARMENIA: TYPOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS1 ADAM T. SMITH (Ann Arbor) Abstract Walled fortresses set atop rock outcrops and hills are the dominant settlement type documented in archaeological investigations of late second/early first millennium B.C. southern Transcaucasia. These sites arose as centers of the emerging complex polities in the region, marking not only the expansion of social inequalities but the formalization of a governmental apparatus. How- ever, there have been few systematic attempts to understand the morphology of Late Bronze/Early Iron Age fortresses and assess dimensions of formal variation. This article proposes a typology of these early southern Transcaucasian fortresses based upon qualitative dimensions of a cor- pus of fortress sites from the Ararat and Shirak plains of the Republic of Armenia. Variation in these qualitative dimensions is then assessed in reference to quantitative elements of settle- ment. In both of his major foundation inscriptions from southern Transcaucasia, Argishti I, King of Urartu, described the region as a "wilderness" to which he gave order through construction: For the majesty of god Khaldi, Argishti, son of Menua, says: I built a majestic fortress, I gave it a name from my own-Argishtihinili. The

Journal

Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to SiberiaBrill

Published: Jan 1, 1999

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