Modern automotive systems feature dozens of electronic control units (ECUs) for chassis, body and powertrain functions. These systems are costly and inflexible to upgrade, requiring ever increasing numbers of ECUs to support new features such as advanced driver assistance (ADAS), autonomous technologies, and infotainment. To counter these challenges, we propose DriveOS, a safe, secure, extensible, and timing-predictable system for modern vehicle management in a centralized platform. DriveOS is based on a separation kernel, where timing and safety-critical ECU functions are implemented in a real-time OS (RTOS) alongside non-critical software in Linux or Android. The system enforces the separation, or partitioning, of both software and hardware among different OSes.DriveOS runs on a relatively low-cost embedded PC-class platform, supporting multiple cores and hardware virtualization capabilities. Instrument cluster, in-vehicle infotainment and advanced driver assistance system services are implemented in a Yocto Linux guest, which communicates with critical real-time services via secure shared memory. The RTOS manages a real-time controller area network (CAN) interface that is inaccessible to Linux services except via well-defined and legitimate communication channels. In this work, we integrate three Qt-based services written for Yocto Linux, running in parallel with a real-time longitudinal controller task and multiple CAN bus concentrators, for vehicular sensor data processing and actuation. We demonstrate the benefits and performance of DriveOS with a hardware-in-the-loop CARLA simulation using a real car dataset.
ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS) – Association for Computing Machinery
Published: Sep 22, 2021
Keywords: Automotive systems