Uncertainties in machine learning are a significant roadblock for its application in safety-critical cyber-physical systems (CPS). One source of uncertainty arises from distribution shifts in the input data between training and test scenarios. Detecting such distribution shifts in real-time is an emerging approach to address the challenge. The high dimensional input space in CPS applications involving imaging adds extra difficulty to the task. Generative learning models are widely adopted for the task, namely out-of-distribution (OoD) detection. To improve the state-of-the-art, we studied existing proposals from both machine learning and CPS fields. In the latter, safety monitoring in real-time for autonomous driving agents has been a focus. Exploiting the spatiotemporal correlation of motion in videos, we can robustly detect hazardous motion around autonomous driving agents. Inspired by the latest advances in the Variational Autoencoder (VAE) theory and practice, we tapped into the prior knowledge in data to further boost OoD detection’s robustness. Comparison studies over nuScenes and Synthia data sets show our methods significantly improve detection capabilities of OoD factors unique to driving scenarios, 42% better than state-of-the-art approaches. Our model also generalized near-perfectly, 97% better than the state-of-the-art across the real-world and simulation driving data sets experimented. Finally, we customized one proposed method into a twin-encoder model that can be deployed to resource limited embedded devices for real-time OoD detection. Its execution time was reduced over four times in low-precision 8-bit integer inference, while detection capability is comparable to its corresponding floating-point model.
ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS) – Association for Computing Machinery
Published: Sep 22, 2021
Keywords: Out-of-distribution detection