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Regulatory Lymphocytes and Intestinal Inflammation

Regulatory Lymphocytes and Intestinal Inflammation The immune system is pivotal in mediating the interactions between host and microbiota that shape the intestinal environment. Intestinal homeostasis arises from a highly dynamic balance between host protective immunity and regulatory mechanisms. This regulation is achieved by a number of cell populations acting through a set of shared regulatory pathways. In this review, we summarize the main lymphocyte subsets controlling immune responsiveness in the gut and their mechanisms of control, which involve maintenance of intestinal barrier function and suppression of chronic inflammation. CD4 + Foxp3 + T cells play a nonredundant role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis through IL-10- and TGF-β-dependent mechanisms. Their activity is complemented by other T and B lymphocytes. Because breakdown in immune regulatory networks in the intestine leads to chronic inflammatory diseases of the gut, such as inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease, regulatory lymphocytes are an attractive target for therapies of intestinal inflammation. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Annual Review of Immunology Annual Reviews

Regulatory Lymphocytes and Intestinal Inflammation

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Publisher
Annual Reviews
Copyright
Copyright © 2009 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved
ISSN
0732-0582
eISSN
1545-3278
DOI
10.1146/annurev.immunol.021908.132657
pmid
19302043
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The immune system is pivotal in mediating the interactions between host and microbiota that shape the intestinal environment. Intestinal homeostasis arises from a highly dynamic balance between host protective immunity and regulatory mechanisms. This regulation is achieved by a number of cell populations acting through a set of shared regulatory pathways. In this review, we summarize the main lymphocyte subsets controlling immune responsiveness in the gut and their mechanisms of control, which involve maintenance of intestinal barrier function and suppression of chronic inflammation. CD4 + Foxp3 + T cells play a nonredundant role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis through IL-10- and TGF-β-dependent mechanisms. Their activity is complemented by other T and B lymphocytes. Because breakdown in immune regulatory networks in the intestine leads to chronic inflammatory diseases of the gut, such as inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease, regulatory lymphocytes are an attractive target for therapies of intestinal inflammation.

Journal

Annual Review of ImmunologyAnnual Reviews

Published: Apr 23, 2009

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