The mammalian Rel/NF-κB family of transcription factors, including RelA, c-Rel, RelB, NF-κB1 (p50 and its precursor p105), and NF-κB2 (p52 and its precursor p100), plays a central role in the immune system by regulating several processes ranging from the development and survival of lymphocytes and lymphoid organs to the control of immune responses and malignant transformation. The five members of the NF-κB family are normally kept inactive in the cytoplasm by interaction with inhibitors called IκBs or the unprocessed forms of NF-κB1 and NF-κB2. A wide variety of signals emanating from antigen receptors, pattern-recognition receptors, receptors for the members of TNF and IL-1 cytokine families, and others induce differential activation of NF-κB heterodimers. Although work over the past two decades has shed significant light on the regulation of NF-κB transcription factors and their functions, much progress has been made in the past two years revealing new insights into the regulation and functions of NF-κB. This recent progress is covered in this review.
Annual Review of Immunology – Annual Reviews
Published: Apr 23, 2009