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Paracrine Cytokine Adjuvants in Cancer Immunotherapy

Paracrine Cytokine Adjuvants in Cancer Immunotherapy Advances in our understanding of the molecular events of antigen recogni­ tion by T cells and T cell activation are opening up new approaches to cancer immunotherapy. The identification and cloning of cytokines provide one impor­ tant set of tools for manipulating immunologic responses. For cancer therapy, cytokines such as interleukin-2 have been administered systemically. However, systemic administration of cytokines ignores the paracrine nature of their ac­ tion. Recently, an alternative approach has been explored that produces high concentrations of cytokines local to the tumor cells. This is achieved either by transduction of the tumor cells with the cytokine gene or by mixture of the tumor cells with cytokine containing biodegradable polymer microspheres. Under these circumstances, the locally released cytokine produces a strong local inflammatory T cell response results, capable of mediating regression of systemic tumor de­ posits. This paracrine delivery of cytokines can therefore be considered as a new type of adjuvant in the design of vaccines for cancer as well as microbial infections. response specific to the particular cytokine. In some cases, a potent tumor-specific INTRODUCTION Two of the most actively investigated areas in cancer immunotherapy have been vaccines and cytokines. In the past, these two http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Annual Review of Immunology Annual Reviews

Paracrine Cytokine Adjuvants in Cancer Immunotherapy

Annual Review of Immunology , Volume 13 (1) – Apr 1, 1995

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Publisher
Annual Reviews
Copyright
Copyright 1995 Annual Reviews. All rights reserved
Subject
Review Articles
ISSN
0732-0582
eISSN
1545-3278
DOI
10.1146/annurev.iy.13.040195.002151
pmid
7612229
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Advances in our understanding of the molecular events of antigen recogni­ tion by T cells and T cell activation are opening up new approaches to cancer immunotherapy. The identification and cloning of cytokines provide one impor­ tant set of tools for manipulating immunologic responses. For cancer therapy, cytokines such as interleukin-2 have been administered systemically. However, systemic administration of cytokines ignores the paracrine nature of their ac­ tion. Recently, an alternative approach has been explored that produces high concentrations of cytokines local to the tumor cells. This is achieved either by transduction of the tumor cells with the cytokine gene or by mixture of the tumor cells with cytokine containing biodegradable polymer microspheres. Under these circumstances, the locally released cytokine produces a strong local inflammatory T cell response results, capable of mediating regression of systemic tumor de­ posits. This paracrine delivery of cytokines can therefore be considered as a new type of adjuvant in the design of vaccines for cancer as well as microbial infections. response specific to the particular cytokine. In some cases, a potent tumor-specific INTRODUCTION Two of the most actively investigated areas in cancer immunotherapy have been vaccines and cytokines. In the past, these two

Journal

Annual Review of ImmunologyAnnual Reviews

Published: Apr 1, 1995

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