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Microglial Physiology: Unique Stimuli, Specialized Responses

Microglial Physiology: Unique Stimuli, Specialized Responses Microglia, the macrophages of the central nervous system parenchyma, have in the normal healthy brain a distinct phenotype induced by molecules expressed on or secreted by adjacent neurons and astrocytes, and this phenotype is maintained in part by virtue of the blood-brain barrier's exclusion of serum components. Microglia are continually active, their processes palpating and surveying their local microenvironment. The microglia rapidly change their phenotype in response to any disturbance of nervous system homeostasis and are commonly referred to as activated on the basis of the changes in their morphology or expression of cell surface antigens. A wealth of data now demonstrate that the microglia have very diverse effector functions, in line with macrophage populations in other organs. The term activated microglia needs to be qualified to reflect the distinct and very different states of activation-associated effector functions in different disease states. Manipulating the effector functions of microglia has the potential to modify the outcome of diverse neurological diseases. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Annual Review of Immunology Annual Reviews

Microglial Physiology: Unique Stimuli, Specialized Responses

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Publisher
Annual Reviews
Copyright
Copyright © 2009 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved
ISSN
0732-0582
eISSN
1545-3278
DOI
10.1146/annurev.immunol.021908.132528
pmid
19302036
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Microglia, the macrophages of the central nervous system parenchyma, have in the normal healthy brain a distinct phenotype induced by molecules expressed on or secreted by adjacent neurons and astrocytes, and this phenotype is maintained in part by virtue of the blood-brain barrier's exclusion of serum components. Microglia are continually active, their processes palpating and surveying their local microenvironment. The microglia rapidly change their phenotype in response to any disturbance of nervous system homeostasis and are commonly referred to as activated on the basis of the changes in their morphology or expression of cell surface antigens. A wealth of data now demonstrate that the microglia have very diverse effector functions, in line with macrophage populations in other organs. The term activated microglia needs to be qualified to reflect the distinct and very different states of activation-associated effector functions in different disease states. Manipulating the effector functions of microglia has the potential to modify the outcome of diverse neurological diseases.

Journal

Annual Review of ImmunologyAnnual Reviews

Published: Apr 23, 2009

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