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Innate Immune Sensing and Signaling of Cytosolic Nucleic Acids

Innate Immune Sensing and Signaling of Cytosolic Nucleic Acids The innate immune system utilizes pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) to detect the invasion of pathogens and initiate host antimicrobial responses such as the production of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines. Nucleic acids, which are essential genetic information carriers for all living organisms including viral, bacterial, and eukaryotic pathogens, are major structures detected by the innate immune system. However, inappropriate detection of self nucleic acids can result in autoimmune diseases. PRRs that recognize nucleic acids in cells include several endosomal members of the Toll-like receptor family and several cytosolic sensors for DNA and RNA. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding the mechanism of nucleic acid sensing and signaling in the cytosol of mammalian cells as well as the emerging role of cytosolic nucleic acids in autoimmunity. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Annual Review of Immunology Annual Reviews

Innate Immune Sensing and Signaling of Cytosolic Nucleic Acids

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Publisher
Annual Reviews
Copyright
Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved
ISSN
0732-0582
eISSN
1545-3278
DOI
10.1146/annurev-immunol-032713-120156
pmid
24655297
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The innate immune system utilizes pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) to detect the invasion of pathogens and initiate host antimicrobial responses such as the production of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines. Nucleic acids, which are essential genetic information carriers for all living organisms including viral, bacterial, and eukaryotic pathogens, are major structures detected by the innate immune system. However, inappropriate detection of self nucleic acids can result in autoimmune diseases. PRRs that recognize nucleic acids in cells include several endosomal members of the Toll-like receptor family and several cytosolic sensors for DNA and RNA. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding the mechanism of nucleic acid sensing and signaling in the cytosol of mammalian cells as well as the emerging role of cytosolic nucleic acids in autoimmunity.

Journal

Annual Review of ImmunologyAnnual Reviews

Published: Mar 21, 2014

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