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Complement and Its Receptors: New Insights into Human Disease

Complement and Its Receptors: New Insights into Human Disease Although new activation and regulatory mechanisms are still being identified, the basic architecture of the complement system has been known for decades. Two major roles of complement are to control certain bacterial infections and to promote clearance of apoptotic cells. In addition, although inappropriate complement activation has long been proposed to cause tissue damage in human inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, whether this is indeed true has been uncertain. However, recent studies in humans, especially those using newly available biological therapeutics, have now clearly demonstrated the pathophysiologic importance of the complement system in several rare diseases. Beyond these conditions, recent genetic studies have strongly supported an injurious role for complement in a wide array of human inflammatory, degenerative, and autoimmune diseases. This review includes an overview of complement activation, regulatory, and effector mechanisms. It then focuses on new understandings gained from genetic studies, ex vivo analyses, therapeutic trials, and animal models as well as on new research opportunities. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Annual Review of Immunology Annual Reviews

Complement and Its Receptors: New Insights into Human Disease

Annual Review of Immunology , Volume 32 – Mar 21, 2014

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Publisher
Annual Reviews
Copyright
Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved
ISSN
0732-0582
eISSN
1545-3278
DOI
10.1146/annurev-immunol-032713-120154
pmid
24499275
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Although new activation and regulatory mechanisms are still being identified, the basic architecture of the complement system has been known for decades. Two major roles of complement are to control certain bacterial infections and to promote clearance of apoptotic cells. In addition, although inappropriate complement activation has long been proposed to cause tissue damage in human inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, whether this is indeed true has been uncertain. However, recent studies in humans, especially those using newly available biological therapeutics, have now clearly demonstrated the pathophysiologic importance of the complement system in several rare diseases. Beyond these conditions, recent genetic studies have strongly supported an injurious role for complement in a wide array of human inflammatory, degenerative, and autoimmune diseases. This review includes an overview of complement activation, regulatory, and effector mechanisms. It then focuses on new understandings gained from genetic studies, ex vivo analyses, therapeutic trials, and animal models as well as on new research opportunities.

Journal

Annual Review of ImmunologyAnnual Reviews

Published: Mar 21, 2014

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