The growing atmospheric CO 2 concentration and its impact on climate have motivated widespread research and development aimed at slowing or stemming anthropogenic carbon emissions. Technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) employing mass separating agents that extract and purify CO 2 from flue gas emanating from large point sources such as fossil fuel–fired electricity-generating power plants are under development. Recent advances in solvents, adsorbents, and membranes for postcombust- ion CO 2 capture are described here. Specifically, room-temperature ionic liquids, supported amine materials, mixed matrix and facilitated transport membranes, and metal-organic framework materials are highlighted. In addition, the concept of extracting CO 2 directly from ambient air (air capture) as a means of reducing the global atmospheric CO 2 concentration is reviewed. For both conventional CCS from large point sources and air capture, critical research needs are identified and discussed.
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering – Annual Reviews
Published: Jul 15, 2011