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The random recombination of immunoglobulin V(D)J gene segments produces unique IgM antibodies that serve as the antigen receptor for each developing B cell. Hence, the newly formed B cell repertoire is comprised of a variety of specificities that display a range of reactivity with self‐antigens....
The central nervous system (CNS) has historically been viewed as an immunologically privileged site, but recent studies have uncovered a vast landscape of immune cells that reside primarily along its borders. While microglia are largely responsible for surveying the parenchyma, CNS barrier sites...
The recognition of pathogen‐associated nucleic acid (NA) promotes effective immunity against invading pathogens. However, endosomal Toll‐like receptor (TLR) activation by self‐NA also underlies the pathogenesis of systemic autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). For this...
The ability to directly observe leukocyte behavior in vivo has dramatically expanded our understanding of the immune system. Zebrafish are particularly amenable to the high‐resolution imaging of leukocytes during both homeostasis and inflammation. Due to its natural transparency, intravital...
Antibodies to non‐protein antigens such as nucleic acids, polysaccharides, and glycolipids play important roles in both host defense against microbes and development of autoimmune diseases. Although non‐protein antigens are not recognized by T cells, antibody production to non‐protein antigens...
Autoimmune diseases are characterized by serum autoantibodies, some of which are pathogenic, causing severe manifestations and organ injury. However, autoantibodies of the same antigenic reactivity are also present in the serum of asymptomatic people years before they develop any clinical signs...
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