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It is widely accepted that the surface glycoprotein (gp120) of human immunodeficiency virus‐1 (HIV‐1) plays an important role in HIV‐1‐induced nerve damage and pathogenesis of HIV‐associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Our previous work has demonstrated that gp120 enhanced excitatory...
Previous works showed that opioid peptides are produced by olivocochlear efferent neurons, while cochlear hair cells express opioid receptors. It has been proposed that opioids protect the auditory system from damage by intense stimulation, although their use for therapeutic or illicit purposes...
Urethane is a general anaesthetic widely used in animal research. The state of urethane anaesthesia is unique because it alternates between macroscopically distinct electrographic states: a slow‐wave state that resembles non‐rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and an activated state with features of...
In the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, local dopaminergic interneurons play a key role in regulating the flow of sensory information from nose to cortex. These dual dopamine‐ and GABA‐releasing cells are capable of marked experience‐dependent changes in the expression of...
Diabetes mellitus may cause tau protein hyperphosphorylation and neurodegeneration, but the exact mechanism by which diabetic conditions induce tau pathology remains unclear. Tau protein hyperphosphorylation is considered a major pathological hallmark of neurodegeneration and can be triggered by...
Evidence suggests excitability of the motor cortex (M1) changes in response to motor skill learning of the upper limb. Few studies have examined immediate changes in corticospinal excitability and intra‐cortical mechanisms following motor learning in the lower back. Further, it is unknown which...
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