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By algebraic means, we give an equational axiomatization of the equational fragments of various systems of arithmetic. We also introduce a faithful semantics according to which, for every reasonable system T for arithmetic, there is a model where exactly the theorems of T are true.
Following some ideas of Roberto Magari, we propose trial and error probabilistic functions, i.e. probability measures on the sentences of arithmetic that evolve in time by trial and error. The set ℐ of the sentences that get limit probability 1 is a Π3—theory, in fact ℐ can be a Π3—complete set....
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