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Introduction: Prediction models of most toxicological assays translate continuous data to binary classifications (“positive” or “negative”) using cutoff values. Mostly these cutoffs do not consider data variability. Some OECD test guidelines, however, provide a range close to the cutoff. If a...
Introduction: Here, we describe the generation of hypotheses for grouping nanoforms (NFs) after inhalation exposure and the tailored Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA) with which each specific hypothesis can be tested. This is part of a state-of-the-art framework to support...
Introduction: Animal tests of cosmetic ingredients and products have been banned in the EU since 2013. However, in Japan, the application of new quasi-drugs requires the generation of 24-hour data on primary and cumulative skin irritation by animal testing. Such data are unreliable because an...
Introduction: German chamomile is a botanical ingredient commonly used in cosmetics, thus determination of skin sensitization effects of German chamomile constituents is critical for the safety of consumers. Nonetheless, a systematic investigation of skin sensitization potential of chamomile...
Introduction: Cosmetics Europe develops two defined approaches (DAs) for eye hazard identification, that is, addressing serious eye damage (Cat. 1), eye irritation (Cat. 2), and the absence thereof (No Cat.), for nonsurfactant liquid test substances. DAL-1 combines four physicochemical...
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