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Addictive and conditioning processes interact to make cigarette smoking a common, lethal behavior that is highly resistant to change. In addition to addiction and conditioning, smoking is maintained by a wide range of forces, ranging from social modeling and advertising to the politics and...
Hypoxic injury to tubular cells represents an early event in acute renal failure. Although important advances have been made in the understanding of hypoxic injury at the cellular level (e.g. loss of cell polarity, production of free radicals, calcium entry, and the activation of genes for...
Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is an endobronchiolitis characterized by the microcolony mode of growth (biofilm). Early colonization is treated with oral ciprofloxacin combinedw ith colistin inhalation. Chronic infection is treated with “maintenance chemotherapy” consisting of...
Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common disease that can be accurately diagnosed and effectively treated in most patients. The diagnosis is established by a persistent elevation of serum calcium and parathyroid hormone and by clinical evaluation. Surgery is the appropriate treatment, and...
Recent studies have shown that chromosomes shorten as cells divide and become senescent. Also, deletions in mitochondrial DNA increase markedly with advancing age, presumably secondary to damage from oxygen radicals. Since host defenses against environmental factors also become attenuated, the...
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