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Swallowing is a coordinated activity that enables solids and liquids to pass uninterruptedly from the mouth to the stomach. Dysphagia occurs when this process is disrupted by organic or functional alterations at the level of swallow initiation or esophageal emptying. The differential diagnosis...
Immunocompromised patients are prone to develop certain malignancies, particularly involving cells of the immune system itself (1-3). In this chapter we describe the various neoplasms, note the differences between these and similar cancers in the general population, emphasize similar tumor...
Antiphospholipid antibodies may be detected by solid phase anticardiolipin antibody tests, the lupus anticoagulant test, or standard tests for syphilis (STS). The occurrence of these antibodies has been associated with venous or arterial thrombosis, fetal loss, and possibly thrombocytopenia....
Acute renal failure is a serious consequence of renal ischemia. The diagnosis carries an associated high mortality rate. When blood flow to the kidneys is inadequate to supply metabolic demands, a number of pathophysiological changes occur that ultimately result in cell death and tissue...
Subcortical dementia occurs both in disorders affecting the basal ganglia (for example, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy) and in a variety of subcortical vascular, infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic conditions. The principal features...
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