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AbstractTwice a year billions of birds migrate between breeding and wintering grounds. To facilitate migrations, birds develop migratory disposition, a complex suite of behavioral and physiological adjustments. Glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone is involved in the regulation of migratory...
AbstractImmune response to pathogens such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) and related haemosporidian parasites (Haemoproteus spp. and Leucocytozoon spp.) can lead to increases in energy demands of birds. Migrations are energetically costly for birds and require resources that could be...
AbstractMany animals are shifting migrations in response to human activities. In particular, human-induced changes to climate and habitat (e.g., urbanization) likely facilitate animals becoming year-round residents. Because migration can be energetically expensive, shifts to sedentary behavior...
AbstractBillions of animals migrate annually in pursuit of food, safety, and reproduction. Long-distance migration can be energetically expensive, which can force tradeoffs with investment in other physiological systems (e.g., suppressing immunity). Understanding the physiological impacts of...
AbstractAlthough the endocrine system likely plays an important role in orchestrating the transition to a migratory state, the specific mechanisms by which this occurs remain poorly understood. Changes in glucocorticoid signaling are one proposed mechanism that may be important in migratory...
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