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The use of fish in scientific research is increasing worldwide, due to both the rapid expansion of the fish farming industry and growing awareness of questions concerning the humane use of mammalian models in basic research and chemical testing. As fish are lower on the evolutionary scale than...
By considering reduction before refinement, we risk allowing some animals to experience greater pain and distress. A variety of approaches can help balance reduction and refinement while promoting the welfare of individual animals
The rarity of spontaneous cancer in amphibians, and the difficulty of inducing cancer in these lower vertebrates, suggest that they possess an effective system for resistance to the development of cancer. The first part of this narrative presents evidence for cancer resistance in amphibians, and...
Until the day comes when animals are no longer needed for research, refinement needs to be a priority for the scientific community
Russell and Burch's principle of refinement has endured from its inception in the 1950s, to appear in today's EU Directive
The freedom of choice of the experimenter is often very much wider than it at first appears. The full use of this freedom is the mark alike of humane and successful experimentation. There is, perhaps, no limit in animal experimentation to the progress of refinement
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