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This article examines the decline in animal experimentation observed in the last 25 years. It considers possible reasons for this and its significance. However, it also asks whether more could have been achieved, and considers what needs to be done to ensure that the current rate of decline is...
The two main techniques used in biomedical research for the production of transgenic animals have several implications for animal welfare in terms of the Three Rs of Russell & Burch. Some are intrinsic to the transgenic objectives, while others relate to the effects of mutations, transgene...
The Three Rs, reduction, refinement and replacement, were introduced in 1959 by Russell & Burch in their important publication The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. These Three Rs are now collectively referred to as alternatives. Using the letter R, we have developed an expanded list...
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