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Abstract Optimizing angular or spatial colour homogeneity has become an important task in many general lighting applications and first requires a valid description of illumination colour homogeneity. We analyse different frequently used methods to describe colour distributions in theory and with...
Abstract Mask aligners are lithographic tools used to transfer a pattern of microstructures by shadow printing lithography onto a planar wafer. Contact lithography allows us to print large mask fields with sub-micron resolution, but requires frequent mask cleaning. Thus, contact lithography is...
Abstract Diffraction gratings are key components for spectroscopic systems. For high-end applications, they have to meet advanced requirements as, e.g., maximum efficiency, lowest possible scattered light level, high numerical aperture, and minimal aberrations. Diffraction gratings are demanded...
Abstract Subwavelength gratings comprising a stack of two thin metallic wire gratings embedded in a dielectric exhibit distinctive color properties in transmittance. Its angle-dependent coloring can be easily noticed by human observers in ambient light. Moreover, it has pronounced polarizing...
Abstract Several design examples show how correcting Petzval curvature in high NA lithographic designs leads to much of the design complexity. There are two cases in which much simpler designs are possible, neither of them practical with today’s technology. One is that of a curved object and/or...
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