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Evolution proceeds in phases, alternatingly convergent and divergent. During the divergent phases, many variants of an evolutionary system arise, and in the convergent phases, these are brought together in a new, higher unity, which in turn varies, and so on. Thus the mechanism of evolution is...
There is probably only one information system in living nature — the macromolecular system including DNA, RNA and protein. Its unity for the genetic and nervous activity can be followed in the storage of information (heredity, memory) and in its processing (recombination and selection of both...
Pluralism is a sound strategy in classifying disciplines of biology. The relevance of a particular classification depends on various methodological issues, on the way in which the scientist's problems are specified, and on factual matters.
A good division of biology is important for clarity of thought, presentation of the problems and nowadays also for science policy. Various classifications are in use, depending upon different parameters. A division can be based on objects and on aspects. A modern classification on objects is...
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